The term e-waste is used for electrical and electronic equipment discarded as a whole or in part by the consumer or bulk consumer. Goods rejected from manufacturing, repair and refurbishment processes are also categorized as e-waste.
Extended Producer’s Responsibility (EPR)
Producer of EEE (electrical and electronic equipment) holds complete responsibility of managing their equipment even after its end of life. It is also the responsibility of producer -manufacturer or assembler who proposes to sell the EEE under their own brand or proposes to sell imported EEE.
Authorization of EPR – From SPCB/PCC
This is applicable on producer, dismantler, consumer, collection centre, and recycler. IT & telecommunication and consumer EEE are also required to apply for EPR authorization.
This rule is exempted for micro and small enterprises.
The Challenges of E-waste Rules, 2011
– EPR Authorization from multiple SPCBs or Pan India Authorization was a serious challenge.
– The actual procedure of financing was not elaborated neither obligatory.
– The MSEs (micro and small enterprises) were exempted. This was a huge challenge because these enterprises were major source of e-waste generation.
– None of the collection centres were a part of EPR Authorization.
– No rules and regulation were applicable for Bulk Consumers.
– Major stakeholders such as refurbishers, manufacturers, and dealers were missing.
According to the e-waste Rules, 2011, the manufacturers and producers were supposed to go for a separate Authorization & Registration process. The provisions for dismantling and recycling (illegal operations) were ineffective. The registered recyclers and dismantlers were not receiving ewaste.
Producers were not actively involved in capacity building and awareness initiatives. The rule lacked effective target based approach and flexibility in EPR implementation.
Collection was producer’s responsibility. This did not include a separate authorization. The rule was also implemented for CFL and other mercury containing lamps.
Management of E-Waste – The 2016 Rules
– A significant amount of responsibility is extended to manufacturers, dealers, and refurbishers for management of equipment even after its end of life.
– Exemption to this responsibility is granted only for micro enterprises.
– It is mandatory for bulk consumer to file annual returns.
– Only single permission for EPR Authorization is granted for all stakeholders including recyclers and dismantlers.
– Inter-state transportation will reinforce the mechanism.
– A liability clause is implemented wherein penalty is issued for violation of the rules.
– It is the Responsibility of State Government to allot good amount of space, skill development, good health and safety of workers.
The problem of increasing amounts of waste and its impact on environment, animal and human beings as forced governments to review availability of policy options. They have also concluded that one of the options for handling the issue is by placing the responsibility for the post-consumer phase of specific equipment/ goods on producers.
Extended Producer Responsibility EPR Authorization Registration is a policy approach wherein producers of goods or equipment are offered a substantial responsibility – financial and/or physical related to the disposal or treatment of post-consumer products.
Allotment of such responsibility may perhaps technically provide incentives to stop wastes at the source itself and promote product design specifically targeted for the environment. The procedure will also support the attainment of various other goals such as effective management of materials and public recycling. The present trend is targeted towards the extension of EPR to the following:
– New products
– Groups of products
– Various waste streams such as electronics electrical and appliances.
A lot of work is going on for EPR to ensure minimal waste and maximum recycling of e-waste. This is a dedicated attempt by organizations to keep the environment clean and worth living in.